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Herbalism, alchemy , geomancy, and other magic arts owe their origin to this fountain-head of primitive superstition. Heaven is very opulent; has alchemy to change the ugliest substances into beautifulest.
A science no longer practiced that sought to transform one chemical element into another through a combination of magic and primitive chemistry.
Alchemy is considered to be the ancestor of modern chemistry. A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. Words nearby alchemy Alceste , Alcestis , alchem.
In English, the term is often limited to descriptions of European alchemy, but similar practices existed in the Far East , the Indian subcontinent , and the Muslim world.
Islamic and European alchemists developed a structure of basic laboratory techniques , theory, terminology, and experimental method , some of which are still in use today.
However, they continued antiquity 's belief in four elements and guarded their work in secrecy including cyphers and cryptic symbolism. Their work was guided by Hermetic principles related to magic , mythology , and religion.
Modern discussions of alchemy are generally split into an examination of its exoteric practical applications and its esoteric spiritual aspects, despite criticisms by scholars such as Holmyard  and von Franz  that they should be understood as complementary.
The former is pursued by historians of the physical sciences who examine the subject in terms of early chemistry , medicine , and charlatanism , and the philosophical and religious contexts in which these events occurred.
The latter interests historians of esotericism , psychologists , and some philosophers and spiritualists. The subject has also made an ongoing impact on literature and the arts.
Although alchemy is popularly associated with magic, historian Lawrence M. Principe argues that recent historical research has revealed that medieval and early modern alchemy embraced a much more diverse set of ideas, goals, techniques, and practices:.
Most readers probably are aware of several common claims about alchemy—for example, These ideas about alchemy emerged during the eighteenth century or after.
While each of them might have limited validity within a narrow context, none of them is an accurate depiction of alchemy in general. The word alchemy comes from Old French alquemie , alkimie , used in Medieval Latin as alchymia.
Several etymologies have been proposed for the Greek term. The first was proposed by Zosimos of Panopolis 3rd—4th centuries , who derived it from the name of a book, the Khemeu.
The ancient Egyptian word referred to both the country and the colour "black" Egypt was the "Black Land", by contrast with the "Red Land", the surrounding desert ; so this etymology could also explain the nickname "Egyptian black arts".
Alchemy encompasses several philosophical traditions spanning some four millennia and three continents. These traditions' general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to trace their mutual influences and "genetic" relationships.
One can distinguish at least three major strands, which appear to be mostly independent, at least in their earlier stages: Chinese alchemy , centered in China and Indian alchemy , centered on the Indian subcontinent ; and Western alchemy, which occurred around the Mediterranean and whose center has shifted over the millennia from Greco-Roman Egypt to the Islamic world , and finally medieval Europe.
Chinese alchemy was closely connected to Taoism and Indian alchemy with the Dharmic faiths. In contrast, Western alchemy developed its philosophical system mostly independent of but influenced by various Western religions.
It is still an open question whether these three strands share a common origin, or to what extent they influenced each other.
The start of Western alchemy may generally be traced to ancient and Hellenistic Egypt , where the city of Alexandria was a center of alchemical knowledge, and retained its pre-eminence through most of the Greek and Roman periods.
The treatises of Zosimos of Panopolis , the earliest historically attested author fl. Zosimus based his work on that of older alchemical authors, such as Mary the Jewess ,  Pseudo-Democritus ,  and Agathodaimon , but very little is known about any of these authors.
Recent scholarship tend to emphasizes the testimony of Zosimus, who traced the alchemical arts back to Egyptian metallurgical and ceremonial practices.
While critical of the kind alchemy he associated with the Egyptian priests and their followers, Zosimos nonetheless saw the tradition's recent past as rooted in the rites of the Egyptian temples.
Mythology — Zosimos of Panopolis asserted that alchemy dated back to Pharaonic Egypt where it was the domain of the priestly class, though there is little to no evidence for his assertion.
His name is derived from the god Thoth and his Greek counterpart Hermes. Hermes and his caduceus or serpent-staff, were among alchemy's principal symbols.
According to Clement of Alexandria , he wrote what were called the "forty-two books of Hermes", covering all fields of knowledge.
These writings were collected in the first centuries of the common era. Few original Egyptian documents on alchemy have survived, most notable among them the Stockholm papyrus and the Leyden papyrus X.
Philosophy — Alexandria acted as a melting pot for philosophies of Pythagoreanism , Platonism , Stoicism and Gnosticism which formed the origin of alchemy's character.
According to Aristotle, each element had a sphere to which it belonged and to which it would return if left undisturbed.
True alchemy never regarded earth, air, water, and fire as corporeal or chemical substances in the present-day sense of the word. The four elements are simply the primary, and most general, qualities by means of which the amorphous and purely quantitative substance of all bodies first reveals itself in differentiated form.
Alchemy coexisted alongside emerging Christianity. Lactantius believed Hermes Trismegistus had prophesied its birth. Others authors such as Komarios, and Chymes , we only know through fragments of text.
The 2nd millennium BC text Vedas describe a connection between eternal life and gold. According to some scholars Greek alchemy may have influenced Indian alchemy but there are no hard evidences to back this claim.
This art was restricted to certain operations, metals, drugs, compounds, and medicines, many of which have mercury as their core element. Its principles restored the health of those who were ill beyond hope and gave back youth to fading old age.
Some early alchemical writings seem to have their origins in the Kaula tantric schools associated to the teachings of the personality of Matsyendranath.
His book, Rasendramangalam , is an example of Indian alchemy and medicine. The contents of 39 Sanskrit alchemical treatises have been analysed in detail in G.
In some cases Meulenbeld gives notes on the contents and authorship of these works; in other cases references are made only to the unpublished manuscripts of these titles.
A great deal remains to be discovered about Indian alchemical literature. The content of the Sanskrit alchemical corpus has not yet been adequately integrated into the wider general history of alchemy.
Much more is known about Islamic alchemy because it was better documented: indeed, most of the earlier writings that have come down through the years were preserved as Arabic translations.
The early Islamic world was a melting pot for alchemy. Platonic and Aristotelian thought, which had already been somewhat appropriated into hermetical science, continued to be assimilated during the late 7th and early 8th centuries through Syriac translations and scholarship.
The science historian, Paul Kraus, wrote:. To form an idea of the historical place of Jabir's alchemy and to tackle the problem of its sources, it is advisable to compare it with what remains to us of the alchemical literature in the Greek language.
One knows in which miserable state this literature reached us. Collected by Byzantine scientists from the tenth century, the corpus of the Greek alchemists is a cluster of incoherent fragments, going back to all the times since the third century until the end of the Middle Ages.
The efforts of Berthelot and Ruelle to put a little order in this mass of literature led only to poor results, and the later researchers, among them in particular Mrs.
The study of the Greek alchemists is not very encouraging. An even surface examination of the Greek texts shows that a very small part only was organized according to true experiments of laboratory: even the supposedly technical writings, in the state where we find them today, are unintelligible nonsense which refuses any interpretation.
It is different with Jabir's alchemy. The relatively clear description of the processes and the alchemical apparati, the methodical classification of the substances, mark an experimental spirit which is extremely far away from the weird and odd esotericism of the Greek texts.
The theory on which Jabir supports his operations is one of clearness and of an impressive unity. More than with the other Arab authors, one notes with him a balance between theoretical teaching and practical teaching, between the 'ilm and the amal.
In vain one would seek in the Greek texts a work as systematic as that which is presented, for example, in the Book of Seventy.
The first essential in chemistry is that thou shouldest perform practical work and conduct experiments, for he who performs not practical work nor makes experiments will never attain to the least degree of mastery.
The discovery that aqua regia , a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, could dissolve the noblest metal, gold, was to fuel the imagination of alchemists for the next millennium.
Islamic philosophers also made great contributions to alchemical hermeticism. The most influential author in this regard was arguably Jabir. Jabir's ultimate goal was Takwin , the artificial creation of life in the alchemical laboratory, up to, and including, human life.
He analyzed each Aristotelian element in terms of four basic qualities of hotness , coldness , dryness , and moistness.
For example, lead was externally cold and dry, while gold was hot and moist. Thus, Jabir theorized, by rearranging the qualities of one metal, a different metal would result.
Jabir developed an elaborate numerology whereby the root letters of a substance's name in Arabic, when treated with various transformations, held correspondences to the element's physical properties.
The elemental system used in medieval alchemy also originated with Jabir. His original system consisted of seven elements, which included the five classical elements aether , air , earth , fire , and water in addition to two chemical elements representing the metals: sulphur , "the stone which burns", which characterized the principle of combustibility, and mercury , which contained the idealized principle of metallic properties.
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Your feedback will be reviewed. Astrology and alchemy are occult sciences. I'm convinced it was the product of a subtle magic, the alchemy of moonlight.
In Chinese Mythology, Laojun was in charge of alchemy. The revival led to the development of pharmacology and to the rise of modern chemistry.
The gold-making processes of alchemists were finally discredited, but not until the 19th century. Examples of alchemy in a Sentence She practiced her alchemy in the kitchen, turning a pile of vegetables into a delicious salad.
The company hoped for some sort of economic alchemy that would improve business. Recent Examples on the Web One only has to look to the mortgage crisis to see how financial alchemy can go wrong.
Why Didn't We? The Vibe Is Contagious. Send us feedback. See more words from the same century From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Dictionary Entries near alchemy alchemist alchemistry alchemize alchemy alchera alchornea alchymie.Mohawks, Volume 2 of 3 Mary Elizabeth Braddon. In the 13th century, Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon were the most notable of these, their work summarizing and explaining the newly imported alchemical knowledge in Aristotelian terms. He is also a successful author whose debut The Alchemy of Desire was published to wide acclaim. It was notable Hot Wheels Spiele Kostenlos its inclusion of practical chemical How To Deposit On Bovada alongside Champions League Fernsehen Heute theory, and the unusual clarity with which they were described. Nigredo Albedo Citrinitas Rubedo. Keep scrolling for more. Its principles restored the health of those who were ill beyond hope and gave back youth to fading Weekend Unlimited age. Legitimate mystical and medical alchemists such as Michael Maier and Heinrich Khunrath wrote about fraudulent transmutations, distinguishing themselves from the con artists. Philosophers of science by era. State University of New York Press.